Remote tail

You might have wondered why I felt the urge to specify “local” in the title of last post. Well, fast forward a few days since then, for a similar set of tests I also needed to check a log file on a remote Linux machine – that is, I needed some kind of remote tail.

ssh tail -f

We already know select will be part of our tool set. On top of that, we’ll need to forward the command across the network – and a nice way of doing that is over SSH. In Python, this task is relatively simple if you choose to use paramiko, a third party library implementing the SSHv2 protocol.

A few caveats here, as well. The following snippet is a raw prototype to demonstrate the functionality. It fit my bills, but YMMV. Of course many aspects can be improved, starting from instance with isBeginningOfMessage, which is much better placed in a derived class, so that different BOM patterns can be handled. Closing the SSH channel cleanly is also something you might want to polish before using this class.

import paramiko
import re
import select
import Queue

class SSHTail(object):
    """Tail a remote file and store new messages in a queue
    READ_ONLY = select.POLLIN | select.POLLPRI | select.POLLHUP | select.POLLERR
    TIMEOUT = 1000  # milliseconds
    BUF_SIZE = 1024
    NEWLINE_CHARS = {'\n', '\r'}

    def __init__(self, host, path): = host
        self.path = path
        self.poller = select.poll()
        self.messageQueue = Queue.deque()

    def start(self):
        """Start the tail command and return the queue used to
        store read messages
        client = paramiko.SSHClient()
        self.client = client

        transport = self.client.get_transport()
        self.transport = transport

        channel = self.transport.open_session()
        channel.exec_command("tail -F %s" % self.path) = channel

        self.poller.register(, self.READ_ONLY)

        return self.messageQueue

    def isBeginningOfMessage(line):
        """Return True if the line starts with the hardcoded Beginning of
        Message pattern
        BOMPattern = ''
        return re.match(BOMPattern, line)

    def loop(self):
        """Whilst the SSH tunnel is active, keep polling for new
        content and call parseBuffer() to parse it into messages
        while self.transport.is_active():
            events = self.poller.poll(self.TIMEOUT)
            for fd, flag in events:
                if flag & (select.POLLIN | select.POLLPRI):
                    buf =

    def parseBuffer(self, buf):
        """Given a buffer buf, split it into messages and glue it together to
        previous messages, if buf is not the beginning of a message.
        Note: assumes each message is on its on line.
        if buf:
            messages = buf.splitlines()

            oldest = messages[0]
            if not self.isBeginningOfMessage(oldest):
                    messages[0] = self.messageQueue.popleft() + oldest
                except IndexError:

            for message in messages:

Local tail

tail -f

A while ago I needed, for one of my tests, to monitor a log file on a Linux system and store any new lines, so that I could access the added content at the end of the test. In a sense, I needed a kind of buffered tail -f on a local file.

A quick search led me to the select module.
Without further ado, here’s the code to watch one or more files, and to store anything added to those files in a message queue.

It’s a quick and dirty version which can be improved in many ways. For starters, the keys to access the message queues are the sockets themselves, pretty useless in general, but good enough in my case. Second, notice the file is never closed explicitly: definitely not ideal.

import Queue
import select

class Watcher(object):
    TIMEOUT = 1000
    READ_ONLY = select.POLLIN | select.POLLPRI | select.POLLHUP | select.POLLERR

    def __init__(self):
        """Initialize the Watcher"""
        self.poller = select.poll()

        self.fd_to_socket = {}
        self.message_queues = {}

    def addFile(self, path):
        """Add a file to monitor.
        :path: absolute path of the file, including the filename
        f = open(path)
        self.poller.register(f, self.READ_ONLY)
        self.fd_to_socket[f.fileno()] = f 
        self.message_queues[f] = Queue.deque()

    def start(self):
        """Start polling files"""
        while True:
            events = self.poller.poll(self.TIMEOUT)
            for fd, flag in events:
                s = self.fd_to_socket[fd]
                if flag & (select.POLLIN | select.POLLPRI):
                    lines = s.readlines()
                    if lines:

Misconfigured Python pretty printers in GDB

I noticed that running an executable in gdb displayed an error – and only the first time you run the program. The error reads:

(gdb) r
Starting program: /home/chris/workinprogress/cpp/book/a.out 
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/share/gdb/auto-load/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/", line 63, in 
    from libstdcxx.v6.printers import register_libstdcxx_printers
ImportError: No module named 'libstdcxx'
[Inferior 1 (process 7215) exited normally]

The problem is, the libstdcxx directory is not in the path.
The very simple fix is to add the directory to the Python path in gdbinit.

$ cat ~/.gdbinit
import sys
sys.path.insert(0, '/usr/share/gcc-4.8/python')
from libstdcxx.v6.printers import register_libstdcxx_printers
register_libstdcxx_printers (None)